Has anyone found models remotely similar to this one that can be applied to other sports? The MLB, for instance?
There actually tends to be a good number of models for most other sports. This website is a true gem and one of the best data-focused resources in sports, but golf actually has relatively few good models and fewer strong data-oriented analysts working on golf problems. Other sports are generally easier to model since they have a binary response variable–either team A wins or team B wins. Even for some of the harder modeling questions, like estimating the value of a single player to his/her team, people have often built good models (see WAR in baseball, for instance, since you asked about the MLB).
The Sloan Sports Analytics Conference publishes many good sports-related papers, and many try to model various sports. JQAS is also a prestigious venue for publishing this type of research and a good thing to read if you are interested in sports analytics generally.
Edit: If you are looking for more casual resources rather than academic papers, you could look at something like FanGraphs for baseball. Feel free to message me if you’re interested in this type of thing.